HbA1c and Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (A1c) Explained

Diabetes and its complications remain a major cause of early disease and death worldwide. The diagnosis of diabetes is to a large extent based on detecting elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Blood sugar levels can easily be measured at home with a glucometer. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is another laboratory measure frequently used for this … Read more

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) – Fatty Liver Explained

Recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States and other Western countries. The prevalence of the disorder is estimated to be as high as 30% in the general population (1). With obesity being a major risk factor and due to the aging of the population, the … Read more

Alzheimer’s Disease and Obesity – The Black Swan

The science of Alzheimer’s disease has come a long way since 1906, when Alois Alzheimer first described the key features of the disease. Alzheimer, who was a German neurologist and psychiatrist, noticed abnormal deposits in the brain of a 51-year old woman who had dementia. It was later confirmed that patients with Alzheimer’s disease often have brain abnormalities … Read more

The Year of the Fat

During the first few months of this year, we’ve seen at least three strong signs suggesting that health authorities have misled the public for several decades about dietary fats. This finding is of particular interest because later this year the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans will be published. Ever since the beginning of the 1960s, “eat less fat, in … Read more

Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance

The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors, most usually associated with increased body weight, fat accumulation around the abdominal organs often termed central, or visceral obesity (1), and increased resistance to the effects of insulin. Other names that have been used to describe the metabolic syndrome are syndrome X, the insulin resistance syndrome, the deadly quartet (2) and … Read more

Five Tips on How to Prevent a Heart Attack

Cardiology is renowned for its innovative procedures and cutting edge technology. However, one of my favorite scientific papers of 2014 did not address innovative techniques, DNA sequencing or new wonder drugs. It dealt with the fact that certain lifestyle habits and the absence of abdominal obesity may prevent most heart attacks. Toady, chronic noncommunicable diseases are one of the biggest … Read more

Obesity – How and Why Did We Get So Fat?

The modern history of coronary heart disease is quite remarkable. Acute myocardial infarction (acute heart attack) appears to have been relatively uncommon until it emerged in the early 1920s. Then came the plague. In the 1950s coronary heart disease had become the most common cause of death in the industrialized world. The symptoms were often dramatic and … Read more

Adiponectin

It is well documented that obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and higher overall mortality. Obesity also correlates with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and many types of cancer. It has been estimated that severe obesity may shorten lifespan by up to ten years (1). This is comparable to the effect of … Read more

Why Lose Belly Fat? Central Obesity and Health

Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat and increased body weight. Scientific studies have revealed that obesity is associated with negative effects on health and reduced life expectancy. Obesity is most often defined as a body mass index (BMI) above 30. High BMI is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, lipid disorders, … Read more