19 Important Causes of Fatigue – Tiredness and Chronic Fatigue Explained

“Fatigue is here, in my body, in my legs and eyes. That is what gets you in the end. Faith is only a word, embroidered.”  ― Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale. Fatigue or tiredness is a common medical complaint that may seriously affect people’s quality of life. However, despite many possible underlying causes, a specific medical disorder is … Read more

The CANTOS Trial – Is Targeting Inflammation the Solution to Heart Disease?

The recently published results of the long awaited CANTOS trial may forever change our approach to the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease (1). Inescapably, there is now proof that targeting inflammation, in this case by a drug, significantly improves outcome for certain very high-risk patients. But, as so often in clinical research, things … Read more

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) – From Symptoms to Diagnosis and Treatment

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among women. It is characterized by menstrual irregularities, infertility, signs of androgen excess, and polycystic ovaries. It is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and lipid abnormalities. PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in women (1). PCOS was first described in 1934 by Irving F. Stein … Read more

Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) – Impotence Explained

Erectile dysfunction often referred to as impotence, is a common disorder that frequently coexists with cardiovascular disease. It is defined as the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It is estimated that erectile dysfunction affects >30% of men between 40 and 70 years of age (1). Cardiovascular disease is a term that … Read more

Sugar In and Sugar Out: The Modern Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

A few days ago the results of a potentially game-changing trial on the treatment of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial) were presented at an international diabetes conference in Stockholm, Sweden and simultaneously published in the New England Journal of Medicine (1). For the first time, a study has found that a drug that … Read more

Less Heart Disease Despite More Diabetes; The Role of Diet

The diverging trends in heart disease and diabetes represent a public health paradox of immense importance. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are well-known risk factors for coronary heart disease. However, whereas the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is increasing, the death rate from coronary heart disease is declining. This interesting paradox was recently addressed in two … Read more

HbA1c and Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (A1c) Explained

Diabetes and its complications remain a major cause of early disease and death worldwide. The diagnosis of diabetes is to a large extent based on detecting elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Blood sugar levels can easily be measured at home with a glucometer. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is another laboratory measure frequently used for this … Read more