18 Important Causes of Shortness of Breath – Dyspnea Explained

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea is a symptom that describes a sense of breathing discomfort or difficulty in breathing. It is often expressed as feeling out of breath or suffering from breathlessness. It is estimated that up to 7-8 percent of patients presenting to emergency rooms complain of dyspnea (1). In half of … Read more

Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risk of Stroke and Dementia

I’m often asked which is worse for health, sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages. My most common response is to recommend skipping both and choose water. However, in the era of fructose phobia and the apparent association between high fructose consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, many tend to prefer artificially sweetened beverages … Read more

19 Important Causes of Chest Pain

Chest pain is a common symptom associated with a variety of underlying causes. It is estimated that more than six million people visit hospital energy departments in the United States annually because of chest pain. It is the second most frequently reported principal reason for visiting the emergency unit, only abdominal pain is more common (1). … Read more

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) – From Symptoms to Diagnosis and Treatment

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among women. It is characterized by menstrual irregularities, infertility, signs of androgen excess, and polycystic ovaries. It is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and lipid abnormalities. PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in women (1). PCOS was first described in 1934 by Irving F. Stein … Read more

Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia, and Gout

More than eight million people in the U.S., almost 4% of the population, are estimated to suffer from gout. The disease often causes severe pain and physical disability. Gout is associated with increased blood levels of uric acid, called hyperuricemia. Uric acid is a biochemical substance the body has to deal with through our lifetime. It is an end … Read more

VLDL – The Role of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnant Cholesterol

Knowing the role of VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and chylomicrons is a key factor in understanding how lipids (fats) and lipoproteins are involved in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In the current era of adiposity and metabolic disease, VLDL has gained a bigger role than before and may help explain many of the disorders associated with the obesity epidemic such … Read more

Adiposity, Adipokines, and Adiposopathy – Sick Fat Explained

By now, all of us should know that we are in the throes of an obesity epidemic. Worldwide, over 500 million people are believed to be affected (1). Obesity in children and adolescents is on the rise and so is type 2 diabetes. And, according to the media and the experts, this will have horrible consequences that ultimately will … Read more

Weight Management – The Role of Exercise Revisited

Weight Management. The Role of Exercise Revisited

In the midst of the obesity epidemic, one of our most important concerns is the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, body weight itself may not be what matters most. Evidence suggests that obesity measures such as BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, assessed singly or in combination, … Read more

Swollen Feet and Swollen Ankles – Leg Edema Explained

Swollen feet and swollen ankles are common reasons why people seek medical advice. I’m not talking about inflammation due to injury or infection, but a medical condition commonly called leg edema. Leg edema is not only undesirable due to cosmetic reasons but may lead to thinning of the skin, discoloration or staining (pigmentation) and skin sores (ulcers). Healing may be … Read more