Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) – From Symptoms to Diagnosis and Treatment

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among women. It is characterized by menstrual irregularities, infertility, signs of androgen excess, and polycystic ovaries. It is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and lipid abnormalities. PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in women (1). PCOS was first described in 1934 by Irving F. Stein … Read more

Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia, and Gout

More than eight million people in the U.S., almost 4% of the population, are estimated to suffer from gout. The disease often causes severe pain and physical disability. Gout is associated with increased blood levels of uric acid, called hyperuricemia. Uric acid is a biochemical substance the body has to deal with through our lifetime. It is an end … Read more

VLDL – The Role of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnant Cholesterol

Knowing the role of VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and chylomicrons is a key factor in understanding how lipids (fats) and lipoproteins are involved in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In the current era of adiposity and metabolic disease, VLDL has gained a bigger role than before and may help explain many of the disorders associated with the obesity epidemic such … Read more

Adiposity, Adipokines, and Adiposopathy – Sick Fat Explained

By now, all of us should know that we are in the throes of an obesity epidemic. Worldwide, over 500 million people are believed to be affected (1). Obesity in children and adolescents is on the rise and so is type 2 diabetes. And, according to the media and the experts, this will have horrible consequences that ultimately will … Read more

Weight Management – The Role of Exercise Revisited

Weight Management. The Role of Exercise Revisited

In the midst of the obesity epidemic, one of our most important concerns is the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, body weight itself may not be what matters most. Evidence suggests that obesity measures such as BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, assessed singly or in combination, … Read more

Swollen Feet and Swollen Ankles – Leg Edema Explained

Swollen feet and swollen ankles are common reasons why people seek medical advice. I’m not talking about inflammation due to injury or infection, but a medical condition commonly called leg edema. Leg edema is not only undesirable due to cosmetic reasons but may lead to thinning of the skin, discoloration or staining (pigmentation) and skin sores (ulcers). Healing may be … Read more

Apolipoprotein E – ApoE Explained

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the proteins the body uses to transport fats (lipids) in the bloodstream from one tissue or cell type to another. It is essential for healthy metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides, two important types of fats the body has to deal with regularly. The relationship between ApoE and heart disease has been studied quite intensively in recent … Read more

High Carbohydrate Intake Worse than High Fat for Blood Lipids

Data presented at the World Heart Federation’s World Congress of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Health 2016 (WCC 2016) in Mexico City may radically change our perspective on how carbohydrates and different types of fats affect blood cholesterol and other lipid biomarkers. The presentation was based on data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. The data have not been … Read more

Fructose Restriction – An Effective Lipid Intervention?

Fructose Restriction – An Effective Lipid Intervention?

The association between lipid disorders and heart disease is well known. Medical checkups usually involve measurements of cholesterol and other lipid parameters, and most doctors advise their patients on how to improve their lipid pattern. Dietary interventions to lower the risk of heart disease commonly aim at reducing blood levels of cholesterol, LDL cholesterol in particular. This is … Read more