Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risk of Stroke and Dementia

I’m often asked which is worse for health, sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages. My most common response is to recommend skipping both and choose water. However, in the era of fructose phobia and the apparent association between high fructose consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, many tend to prefer artificially sweetened beverages … Read more

19 Important Causes of Chest Pain

Chest pain is a common symptom associated with a variety of underlying causes. It is estimated that more than six million people visit hospital energy departments in the United States annually because of chest pain. It is the second most frequently reported principal reason for visiting the emergency unit, only abdominal pain is more common (1). … Read more

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) – From Symptoms to Diagnosis and Treatment

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among women. It is characterized by menstrual irregularities, infertility, signs of androgen excess, and polycystic ovaries. It is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and lipid abnormalities. PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in women (1). PCOS was first described in 1934 by Irving F. Stein … Read more

The FOURIER Trial – Are We Entering a New Era in Cardiovascular Medicine?

The results of the recently completed FOURIER trial suggest that we have taken a huge step forward in the pharmacological therapy atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). On February 2, 2017 the biotechnological company Amgen announced that the FOURIER trial evaluating whether the drug evolocumab (Repatha) reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with clinically evident ASCVD … Read more

VLDL – The Role of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnant Cholesterol

Knowing the role of VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and chylomicrons is a key factor in understanding how lipids (fats) and lipoproteins are involved in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In the current era of adiposity and metabolic disease, VLDL has gained a bigger role than before and may help explain many of the disorders associated with the obesity epidemic such … Read more

Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Vitamin B3) – Who Should Take Niacin?

Niacin (nicotinic acid), also known as vitamin B3, is one of eight known B vitamins. It has been used for decades to lower cholesterol and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, today its use is somewhat debated. Meat and fish are the richest sources of nicotinic acid followed by fortified enriched grain, vegetables, and yeast. Tuna, salmon, chicken, turkey, … Read more

LDL-Cholesterol May Be Overestimated on a Low-Carb, High-Fat (LCHF) Diet

Elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is common among people who adopt a low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) lifestyle. That’s why many physicians and nutritionists remain doubtful when it comes to LCHF, despite overwhelming evidence that such a dietary approach improves several other lipid parameters, usually leads to weight loss and positively affects glucose metabolism. Several studies have shown that LDL-C constitutes a major risk factor for the … Read more

Adiposity, Adipokines, and Adiposopathy – Sick Fat Explained

By now, all of us should know that we are in the throes of an obesity epidemic. Worldwide, over 500 million people are believed to be affected (1). Obesity in children and adolescents is on the rise and so is type 2 diabetes. And, according to the media and the experts, this will have horrible consequences that ultimately will … Read more