The FOURIER Trial – Are We Entering a New Era in Cardiovascular Medicine?

The results of the recently completed FOURIER trial suggest that we have taken a huge step forward in the pharmacological therapy atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). On February 2, 2017 the biotechnological company Amgen announced that the FOURIER trial evaluating whether the drug evolocumab (Repatha) reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with clinically evident ASCVD … Read more

VLDL – The Role of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnant Cholesterol

Knowing the role of VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and chylomicrons is a key factor in understanding how lipids (fats) and lipoproteins are involved in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In the current era of adiposity and metabolic disease, VLDL has gained a bigger role than before and may help explain many of the disorders associated with the obesity epidemic such … Read more

Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Vitamin B3) – Who Should Take Niacin?

Niacin (nicotinic acid), also known as vitamin B3, is one of eight known B vitamins. It has been used for decades to lower cholesterol and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, today its use is somewhat debated. Meat and fish are the richest sources of nicotinic acid followed by fortified enriched grain, vegetables, and yeast. Tuna, salmon, chicken, turkey, … Read more

Why LDL-Cholesterol May Be Overestimated on a Low-Carb, High-Fat (LCHF) Diet

Elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is common among people who adopt a low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) lifestyle. That’s why many physicians and nutritionists remain doubtful when it comes to LCHF, despite overwhelming evidence that such a dietary approach improves several other lipid parameters, usually leads to weight loss and positively affects glucose metabolism. Several studies have shown that LDL-C constitutes a major risk factor for the … Read more

Adiposity, Adipokines, and Adiposopathy – Sick Fat Explained

By now, all of us should know that we are in the throes of an obesity epidemic. Worldwide, over 500 million people are believed to be affected (1). Obesity in children and adolescents is on the rise and so is type 2 diabetes. And, according to the media and the experts, this will have horrible consequences that ultimately will … Read more

Angina Pectoris – What Is Angina and How Do We Deal With It?

Image by Frank Netter

The term angina pectoris or angina is used to describe chest pain or discomfort, often felt like pressure or a squeezing sensation in the chest. The pain may radiate to the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw or the back region between the shoulder blades. Angina is not a disease. It is a symptom, usually caused by inadequate … Read more

Using Coronary Calcium Score to Target Statin Treatment in Primary Prevention – The Biolmage Study

Targeting Statin Treatment In Primary Prevention – The Biolmage Study

Cholesterol-lowering medications are being prescribed to almost 30% of US adults aged 40 and over, most of these are statins drugs (1). The number increases with age, and approximately 48% of adults older than 75 are receiving such treatment. It has been suggested that treating more older individuals with statins may prevent a substantial number of cardiovascular events, and that, … Read more

GLAGOV – The Lipid Hypothesis Gains Ground

GLAGOV - The Lipid Hypothesis Gains Ground

The results from the recent GLAGOV trial suggest that aggressive lowering of LDL-cholesterol with a PCSK9-inhibitor on top of statin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease may reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Although these results provide support for the lipid hypothesis and may have significant implications for the future of cardiovascular medicine, our eyes are still on safety and … Read more

Weight Management – The Role of Exercise Revisited

Weight Management. The Role of Exercise Revisited

In the midst of the obesity epidemic, one of our most important concerns is the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, body weight itself may not be what matters most. Evidence suggests that obesity measures such as BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, assessed singly or in combination, … Read more