VLDL – The Role of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnant Cholesterol

Knowing the role of VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and chylomicrons is a key factor in understanding how lipids (fats) and lipoproteins are involved in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In the current era of adiposity and metabolic disease, VLDL has gained a bigger role than before and may help explain many of the disorders associated with the obesity epidemic such … Read more

Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Vitamin B3) – Who Should Take Niacin?

Niacin (nicotinic acid), also known as vitamin B3, is one of eight known B vitamins. It has been used for decades to lower cholesterol and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, today its use is somewhat debated. Meat and fish are the richest sources of nicotinic acid followed by fortified enriched grain, vegetables, and yeast. Tuna, salmon, chicken, turkey, … Read more

Angina Pectoris – What Is Angina and How Do We Deal With It?

Image by Frank Netter

The term angina pectoris or angina is used to describe chest pain or discomfort, often felt like pressure or a squeezing sensation in the chest. The pain may radiate to the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw or the back region between the shoulder blades. Angina is not a disease. It is a symptom, usually caused by inadequate … Read more

Using Coronary Calcium Score to Target Statin Treatment in Primary Prevention – The Biolmage Study

Targeting Statin Treatment In Primary Prevention – The Biolmage Study

Cholesterol-lowering medications are being prescribed to almost 30% of US adults aged 40 and over, most of these are statins drugs (1). The number increases with age, and approximately 48% of adults older than 75 are receiving such treatment. It has been suggested that treating more older individuals with statins may prevent a substantial number of cardiovascular events, and that, … Read more

GLAGOV – The Lipid Hypothesis Gains Ground

GLAGOV - The Lipid Hypothesis Gains Ground

The results from the recent GLAGOV trial suggest that aggressive lowering of LDL-cholesterol with a PCSK9-inhibitor on top of statin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease may reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Although these results provide support for the lipid hypothesis and may have significant implications for the future of cardiovascular medicine, our eyes are still on safety and … Read more

Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) Is Not Detected by Measuring Cholesterol

Elevated blood cholesterol is a common reason why people see their doctor. Most of us have been told that high cholesterol increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and we are usually urged to lower it by any means available. But, the problem is that high cholesterol is often harmless, and heart disease can occur in the absence of … Read more

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age: Is it all about the cholesterol?

For decades, scientists have been trying to find out what causes heart disease. Although we have gained some knowledge along the way, many questions remain unanswered. Instead of providing clear answers, scientific research often raises a set of new issues that have to be addressed. The American physicist, Thomas S. Kuhn wrote that “to be scientific is among … Read more

Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) – Impotence Explained

Erectile dysfunction often referred to as impotence, is a common disorder that frequently coexists with cardiovascular disease. It is defined as the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It is estimated that erectile dysfunction affects >30% of men between 40 and 70 years of age (1). Cardiovascular disease is a term that … Read more

Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease

The death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) has declined considerably over the last three decades, mostly because of better control of risk factors and advances in therapy. However, due to the aging of the population and better survival of those affected, the prevalence of the disease remains high. The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes will likely escalate the problem further. Atherosclerosis, … Read more